Russia’s most corrupt institutions are its traffic police, kindergartens and universities, according to a new Kremlin report on corruption.
Over half of the population surveyed who interacted with traffic police said that they had been asked for a bribe, according to the report, prepared by a working group on transparency.
Results in education were similar: 51 percent of respondents who had interactions with kindergartens said a bribe had been asked of them, while 46 percent of respondents said university officials sought bribes.
The army is also particularly vulnerable to corruption, particularly during periods of draft, found the report. Middle schools and medical institutions are also susceptible.
Bribes are expected of businessmen representing private companies, the report said, stymieing economic growth.
Without corruption, the economy would have grown six percent year-on-year instead of just four percent, the report found.
“In 2011, Russia’s net capital outflow reached 4.5 percent of GDP, the situation continued in 2012 despite the favorable foreign economic environment,” the report said.
Russia is considered the world’s most corrupt large economy, according to Transparency International, which rates it 143 out of 182, alongside Uganda, Nigeria, and East Timor.